How to Watch Satellite TV Online Without Any Satellite Dish

Anyone can watch satellite TV online without any satellite dish system nowdays. In case you do not know, this article would show you one time-tested and another new revolutionary way to watch satellite TV on the internet without having to set up a satellite dish.

Many of the older generation grew up in an era of satellite dishes, especially for those who live in the rural areas where cable do not exist. The dishes are transmitters and together with receivers are conduits for TV signals to be displayed as visual images and pictures on our TV screens. However, they are not always pleasant. Set up can be tough and definitely not for those who are not good with their hands or have poor technical skills. Satellite dishes have grown smaller in recent years but they used to be larger than 6 foot monsters in earlier days. If that irks you, you would be relieved to know that you can watch satellite TV online just like many others without satellite dish system.

What are the hardware and PC requirements you need to set up your 'satellite-dish less' PC satellite online TV?

1. A Good PCTV Card

A PCTV card can be installed onto your computer to make your computer work like a satellite television set. Such cards come in the form of internal or external hardware. If you are familiar with the inside of a computer, then an internal card could be a good choice since they tend to be cheaper and more affordable. However, do not bother yourself when you find it too troublesome to fix it internally because there are external cards that work more like plug-and-play gadgets. They cost more and can set you back easily by a few hundreds. As long as your PC has a spare USB port, this option to watch satellite TV online is open to you.

2. PC Requirements

I would suggest you check your systems configuration before you start shopping for a PCTV card. Most cards require a minimum Pentium 3 333MHz system to run well but remember to note down the specifications like RAM, hard disk space, Operating System, etc before you head to the stores.

3. Ready Internet Connection

PCTV cards work well with both dial-up and broadband connections. However, I have a word of advice here. Dial-up transmission runs like a snail and is a really serious party spoiler. You can end up more frustrated than glad that you are watching the program. Go for broadband connection if you can afford to.

Okay, now that we have discussed about the older commonly accepted method to watch satellite TV online, we will look at another new revolutionary technique. This requires the usage of PC satellite TV software which can be downloaded easily. The setup is simple and all it takes is downloading the software and clicking a few buttons before you are ready to watch satellite TV online from more than 3000 channels. Awesome is not it?

For more information on this PC satellite TV software, do a read up at my satellite TV blog.

This article may be freely reprinted or distributed in its entity in any ezine, newsletter, blog or website. The author's name, bio and website links must remain intact and be included with every reproduction.

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Benefits of an Android TV Box

The Android TV box is a useful piece of kit that connects to the TV via the HDMI port to offer most of the features of Android. This type of set up is very flexible and easily connects to most TVs with the right port and is a lot cheaper than a smart TV. Here are a few of the benefits of using the Android TV box:

Endless apps

One of the most appreciated benefits is the ability to use and install the endless apps that are now available on the Android operating system. By visiting the Google Play store using the internet connection, it is possible to install the latest apps related to not only multimedia content, but also audio editing applications, games, books, magazines, sending email, or signing into social media accounts, such as Facebook and Twitter.

TV support

By connecting the Android TV box to the TV at home via the internet; It is also possible to connect to other devices in the home, such as those that make use of technologies like Airplay, Miracast, DLNA, or others that function with Android. This makes it very flexible to share various types of multimedia with the TV. For instance, it is possible for an Android compatible tablet or smartphone to interact and control the TV while also giving the option to share files with a laptop or even watch a downloaded series or a movie on the large screen. Overall, this type of setup gives a simple gateway to get the internet on the TV.

Great price

The cost of upgrading a standard TV to benefit from all the possibilities of Android is relatively cheap compared to buying a smart TV. Plus, the combined standard TV and Android TV box can offer a lot more than a standard smart TV.

Regular updates

The Android operating system is updated on a regular basis, which means the latest version of a game, application, or system is always available. Plus, this is usually done automatically so there is no need to keep searching for updates when logged into the app store. This is significantly more convenient than a smart TV which can take a while to receive updates, especially when every brand of TV needs to have its own update created and released.

All in all, the Android TV Box makes it possible to enjoy the connectivity and versatility of Android on a standard TV set up.

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Examining Computer Hardware Components

1. Checking the Screen or Monitor
The screen of your computer or monitor has pixels. These pixels have three colors: Red, green and blue. Pixels can often be damaged or stop functioning properly displaying only one color or just being black.

There is an online tool to check for bad pixels called "CheckPixels" The test at CheckPixels will display your three main colors mentioned above and if a pixel is dead, it will show as a black spot and if a pixel is glowing a different color ( Malfunctioning) you will see that too.

2. Checking the Keyboard
The keyboard might not seem important as a hardware component, but it is used in almost all tasks and taken for granted. For laptop users, the keyboard is very important. If one has to send the laptop away for repair the entire computer must go with it. There is also an online test tool available to test all your keyboard keys called "KeyboardTester".

3. Checking the Disk Drive (HDD & SSD)
Your HDD / SSD has your operating system and most of your applications and files. Having your HDD / SDD completely healthy is very important. This is most imperative when dealing with a used computer since you have no awareness of the previous history or care of the used computer and its HDD / SDD.

Different tools are available to check the condition and health of the HDD / SDD.

HDSentinel is one you can use for your HDD. The left hand side of the screen will display drives connected the computer. Health is the main parameter to look for. HD Sentinel will explain the meaning of the health percentages and the steps that you should take based on the results. As an example, you should not throw out your HDD just because of a few bad disk sectors and IO errors.

SSDlife is another tool specifically for an SSD. It also shows health in percentages and the expected life of the drive. Similar to hard disks, bad sectors can occur in SSDs.

4. Checking the Processing Units (CPU & GPU)

The main components that do all the processing are the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). These are the components that allow you to run your office applications and your games. These are also essential components to ensure are in perfect working order. So it is necessary that these two components should be in perfect condition. For testing both, we use CPU speed test

For testing your GPU, the tool.Base Mark Web 3.0 works just fine.

5. Checking the Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM is the one essential component that has the most immediate impact on your computers performance. MemTest from HCI Design is a great tool to check your unused memory for errors. Identifying and fixing errors with your RAM is important. Errors in RAM cause the infamous "blue screen of death". Boot problems can also be attributed to RAM errors.

Conclusion
Besides the hardware component tests above, you should also check your Ethernet ports and connection, wireless connection from the wireless card (internal or external), HDMI, DVI and USB connections using available cabling and devices.

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Turn Your Basement Into a Virtual Shooting Gallery

An indoor shooting simulator is easy to add on to most projection based home theater systems, and in most cases is an inexpensive way to add hours of entertainment for the whole family. People of all ages enjoy playing the wide range of games that are available for the system, everything from “Baseball Challenge” to “Elephant Hunter” will keep your family and friends entertained. Utilizing a shooting simulator is not only a great way to add excitement to your home theater room; it is also a get way to keep your shooting skills sharp.

System Basics:

There are a few basic requirements for adding a shooting simulator to an existing home theater. The simulator runs on a normal Windows based computer, software is compatible with Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7. The image is broadcast through a projector to a screen, which most projectors and home theater screens will be suitable for use with this simulator. Now all you need to add is a basic simulator package, which includes a rifle, case, camera and five games. Installation of the simulator will only take about thirty minutes to setup and install the new software and hardware. Now you are ready to start enjoying the very best of simulated shooting. To recap the items you need: computer, projector, screen and a simulator package.

Benefits of Indoor Shooting:

There are many advantages to adding an indoor shooting simulator to you home theater room, these are just a few.

Convenience- having the ability to practice your shooting skills from within your own house, cuts down on drive time to the range and you can fire up your system anytime you want.

Cost Savings- ammunition is expensive! You will save a lot of money practicing your skills using a true to life replica laser firearm verses using live ammo.

Safety- using a laser firearm is a much safer weapon to practice will and it’s a lot better for your hearing.

Shooting Variety- with a shooting simulator you have the ability to practice your skills on a wide range of software titles. You can practice shooting skeet and with just a touch of a button you can switch over to another game and practice your marksmanship on simulated popup targets.

Entertainment- Gather you friends and family, challenge them for the highest score or for bragging rights.

Packages and Software:

With this system, there are many packages of both hardware and software available. Looking for a portable package or maybe a complete package if you don’t have a projector, computer and screen? Those packages and more are available. There are over 35 software titles currently available, which can be purchased separately or in 15 game packages. Software titles are being added, so you will always have the option to buy the latest games on the market. Do you have the best Halloween party on your block? There is a Halloween software package that will insure your party is unforgettable. Do you have a young hunter or marksman that could benefit from “Hunter’s Education” software? It is an option on this simulator. Teach them everything from ethical shooting to animal anatomy, with the hunter’s Ed package. Looking to hone your archery skills? This simulator has packages available for you bow enthusiasts. There are several optional firearms which can be added to the system, to maximize the skill development and enjoyment of the simulator.

Adding a shooting simulator to your theater room is easy and a cost effective way of increasing the entertainment value of your room as well as improve shooting skills. If you would like some more information on the shooting simulators or have any questions please contact me through the website.

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Jingle Maker – Making Jingles With Desktop Music Maker Software

Looking to get into the jingle maker industry? It’s not exactly an easy field to break into but it is worth the trouble if you are ready to put forth the necessary time and effort to make it. If you are not already a professional musician then you will need a way to produce your jingles. We recommend desktop music maker software for this purpose. The rest of this article will cover the top three things you should look for when it comes to a desktop music making application for making jingles.

Feature #1 – Professional Music Production

If you are approaching the jingle making from the perspective of making money then you need to make sure your entire production is created in the manner that lends itself for commercial adaptation. This is essential if you expect your jingles to be used as radio jingles, commercial jingles or advertising jingles. For starters that means making sure you are able to create music output that is a minimum of 44,1 khz.wav files. You will also want to be able to create real bars of music versus samples or loops. This is a benefit of using music making software because it will make sure your music is created to be communicated to other musicians for playback.

Feature #2 – Variety Of Features

When you are just get started you will want something that allows you to take the melodies in your head and get them into music as quick as possible. Yet at the same time you don’t want to have to learn another application as your own skill set grows. This is why it makes sense to choose software that is usable as a beginner and expert alike. It should come with a number of presets that you can expand upon and purchase as your own abilities grow.

Feature #3 – Complete With Sound Generator

You never know where your jingle making skills will take you so you should also have access to making sound effects. It’s not necessarily a must have feature but if you have the choice then make it for software that does include this. You just never know when you may need this as a jingle maker.

We have briefly looked at some of the features you may want to look for when searching for music maker software for your jingle production exercise. The needed feature set should include professional music production capabilities, a variety of features and a sound generator. Of course these are just a small sample of features that you will find when looking for music maker software. But having the right tools just means you will be that much closer to creating the next set of catchy jingles.

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Visualwize Chess Training Software: A Review

Chess enthusiasts of all levels are always seeking ways to improve their chess skills, so that they can win at chess games, whether they play professionally or socially.

One of the most effective ways to improve your chess skills is to use a chess visualization software, which enables you to practice and improve your visualization skills. Visualization is one of the most important skills you need to succeed in chess.

A program that is apparently gaining a lot of popularity and is helping many people to improve their chess is Visualwize Chess Training Software.

Let’s address the basic questions on this software.

What is it?

Visualwize is a chess training software that trains your ability to have a clear mental picture of chess moves before you make these moves on the board. This enables you to assess the implications of your moves before you make the actual moves. This therefore enables you to play better at chess, as you will be able to make the right decisions and avoid making some mistakes that would make you lost a game.

This program has 240 visualization training exercises which are designed to develop your visualization skills. It has and more than 1200 moves to visualize. These moves are real moves made by a master player in real chess games. With the software, you can train to visualize up to 8 moves ahead.

The program consists of 4 levels, level 1 being rather easy and level 4 being hard. You can order the level that suits your needs. For those who really want to significantly improve their skills, level 4, the complete program, is recommended.

How does it work – what does the program actually do?

In simple terms, the program shows a chess position from a game between two chess masters, and then, with arrows, it shows the next few moves that have been made in that position by the renowned chess masters. The arrows stop in a position where a tactic, i.e., a combination that wins the game exists.

Unlike other programs and books that use written annotations for the moves, this program uses arrows on the board. This means it reflects a realistic playing scenario, and you don’t have to take your attention and eyes from the board to read written annotations.

This is one major factor that separates this program from others that are available on the Internet today. Rather than building up the skill of moving your eyes between notation and the board, Visualwize trains you in the art of seeing unfolding moves without actually affecting the board.

On the website where the program is offered, there are many informative and short videos that you can watch, which describe how the program works.

Why is it important – what benefits can you get from this program?

It is recommended that chess players wanting to take their chess to the next level use this program because it offers several benefits:

  • You will be able to see more chess moves ahead, before you actually make any move on the board, giving you an opportunity to assess the consequences of every move before you make it.
  • You will avoid making mistakes which can make you lose a game in an instant.
  • You will make the most of your training time since you will be able to easily visualize the notation below chess diagrams.
  • You become an efficient and effective chess player – you won’t need to calculate variations several times over because you will be able to clearly the consequences of your move in your mind, saving you a lot of time.
  • You will make a wise investment that will help you significantly improve your chess – the program is favourably priced at only $30. If you were to hire a chess coach, you would pay a very high fee per hour of the coach’s time to train you.
  • It is convenient – once you purchase the program, you can train at any time of the day or night, as much as you want.

With several books and programs on how to improve chess, available today, Visualwize is considered to be a cut above the rest among many chess enthusiasts.

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7 Benefits of the Doctor and Clinic Management System Software

A cloud-based clinic management system addresses your hospital management related woes. It brings simplicity to the patient appointments, their treatment, medical billing and payments and services that take care of other requirements of the hospital.

Advantages of a Cloud Compliant Software

A software that leverages the cloud technologies in full, offers flexibility, cost saving, fast service, ease of accessibility and sustainability.

Flexibility

Even small hospitals can harness the power of this type of software. As the business grows, the software automatically scales itself to the hospital’s increasing needs without the user having to provide for it. The software is easy use, at its fullest, right from the first day.

Cost Saving

Choosing to use clinic management software located on the cloud platform is cost effective for the hospitals. It is an attractive choice for the small as well as big hospital setups.

It requires no expenditure on hardware, equipments and trained IT staff. These are the resources that a hospital, supporting an in-house IT setup must utilize. They are costly.

This highly optimized software is maintained, updated and configured in the cloud by the skilled IT experts. The users are, thus, spared from the burden. It leads to cost saving. Unhindered, the hospital staff stays focused on the core functions of the hospital.

Harness it From Anywhere at Anytime

The hospital administrator acts as the super-user of the software. He or she, then, grant access permissions to the others. The managers, doctors and others can then access the necessary data stored in the cloud, from anywhere at anytime.

They can use smartphones, tablets, phablets, laptops, notebooks and desktops over the internet for the purpose.

Fast Service

This software gives fast, easy and simple solutions for the hospitals in managing their day-to-day activities. It helps in streamlining patient management, inventory management, employees’ and doctors’ attendance, online report generation and other tasks.

Sustainability

For hospitals using this software, it is easy to recover from an on-site disaster. Their data is stored in the cloud, where it remains safe. It is repeatedly backed up. They need to simply access it to get their system online.

Features of the Cloud Based Clinic Management System

1. Patient management: Maintains records of the patients that include personal details, visits to the hospitals, allergy related data, medication, etc.

2. Appointments and schedule management: Determines the availability of the doctors before scheduling appointments. Uses powerful search engine to set up an appointment for the patient. The software assists the staff in knowing the availability of the beds for the patient’s hospital stay.

3. Alerts: Sends alerts and reminders using SMSs and Emails. It notifies the patients about the future appointments and vaccination schedules.

4. Purchase and inventory management: Keeps track of the drugs, equipments, instruments and other hospital items in the stock. Generate expiry alerts for the drugs in stock. Assists in creating a purchase list.

5. Records: Stores all the electronic medical records of the patients and the data related to the hospital, in a central place. It is available to the authorized persons from anywhere, at any time. Doctors can use the patient data to conduct medical research.

6. Payment Processing: Assists the hospital’s accounting department in, accurate medical billing to the patient. Provides connectivity to the top accounting software and eases the tasks of accountants.

7. Lead Generation: It assists the business managers employed by the hospitals in lead generation and tracking.

It is easy to start using a cloud-based clinic management system software. It needs no installation and one can access and start using it over the internet, in a jiffy.

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Why Do We Need Software Engineering?

To understand the necessity for software engineering, we must pause briefly to look back at the recent history of computing. This history will help us to understand the problems that started to become obvious in the late sixties and early seventies, and the solutions that have led to the creation of the field of software engineering. These problems were referred to by some as “The software Crisis,” so named for the symptoms of the problem. The situation might also been called “The Complexity Barrier,” so named for the primary cause of the problems. Some refer to the software crisis in the past tense. The crisis is far from over, but thanks to the development of many new techniques that are now included under the title of software engineering, we have made and are continuing to make progress.

In the early days of computing the primary concern was with building or acquiring the hardware. Software was almost expected to take care of itself. The consensus held that “hardware” is “hard” to change, while “software” is “soft,” or easy to change. According, most people in the industry carefully planned hardware development but gave considerably less forethought to the software. If the software didn’t work, they believed, it would be easy enough to change it until it did work. In that case, why make the effort to plan?

The cost of software amounted to such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered it very important to manage its development. Everyone, however, saw the importance of producing programs that were efficient and ran fast because this saved time on the expensive hardware. People time was assumed to save machine time. Making the people process efficient received little priority.

This approach proved satisfactory in the early days of computing, when the software was simple. However, as computing matured, programs became more complex and projects grew larger whereas programs had since been routinely specified, written, operated, and maintained all by the same person, programs began to be developed by teams of programmers to meet someone else’s expectations.

Individual effort gave way to team effort. Communication and coordination which once went on within the head of one person had to occur between the heads of many persons, making the whole process very much more complicated. As a result, communication, management, planning and documentation became critical.

Consider this analogy: a carpenter might work alone to build a simple house for himself or herself without more than a general concept of a plan. He or she could work things out or make adjustments as the work progressed. That’s how early programs were written. But if the home is more elaborate, or if it is built for someone else, the carpenter has to plan more carefully how the house is to be built. Plans need to be reviewed with the future owner before construction starts. And if the house is to be built by many carpenters, the whole project certainly has to be planned before work starts so that as one carpenter builds one part of the house, another is not building the other side of a different house. Scheduling becomes a key element so that cement contractors pour the basement walls before the carpenters start the framing. As the house becomes more complex and more people’s work has to be coordinated, blueprints and management plans are required.

As programs became more complex, the early methods used to make blueprints (flowcharts) were no longer satisfactory to represent this greater complexity. And thus it became difficult for one person who needed a program written to convey to another person, the programmer, just what was wanted, or for programmers to convey to each other what they were doing. In fact, without better methods of representation it became difficult for even one programmer to keep track of what he or she is doing.

The times required to write programs and their costs began to exceed to all estimates. It was not unusual for systems to cost more than twice what had been estimated and to take weeks, months or years longer than expected to complete. The systems turned over to the client frequently did not work correctly because the money or time had run out before the programs could be made to work as originally intended. Or the program was so complex that every attempt to fix a problem produced more problems than it fixed. As clients finally saw what they were getting, they often changed their minds about what they wanted. At least one very large military software systems project costing several hundred million dollars was abandoned because it could never be made to work properly.

The quality of programs also became a big concern. As computers and their programs were used for more vital tasks, like monitoring life support equipment, program quality took on new meaning. Since we had increased our dependency on computers and in many cases could no longer get along without them, we discovered how important it is that they work correctly.

Making a change within a complex program turned out to be very expensive. Often even to get the program to do something slightly different was so hard that it was easier to throw out the old program and start over. This, of course, was costly. Part of the evolution in the software engineering approach was learning to develop systems that are built well enough the first time so that simple changes can be made easily.

At the same time, hardware was growing ever less expensive. Tubes were replaced by transistors and transistors were replaced by integrated circuits until micro computers costing less than three thousand dollars have become several million dollars. As an indication of how fast change was occurring, the cost of a given amount of computing decreases by one half every two years. Given this realignment, the times and costs to develop the software were no longer so small, compared to the hardware, that they could be ignored.

As the cost of hardware plummeted, software continued to be written by humans, whose wages were rising. The savings from productivity improvements in software development from the use of assemblers, compilers, and data base management systems did not proceed as rapidly as the savings in hardware costs. Indeed, today software costs not only can no longer be ignored, they have become larger than the hardware costs. Some current developments, such as nonprocedural (fourth generation) languages and the use of artificial intelligence (fifth generation), show promise of increasing software development productivity, but we are only beginning to see their potential.

Another problem was that in the past programs were often before it was fully understood what the program needed to do. Once the program had been written, the client began to express dissatisfaction. And if the client is dissatisfied, ultimately the producer, too, was unhappy. As time went by software developers learned to lay out with paper and pencil exactly what they intended to do before starting. Then they could review the plans with the client to see if they met the client’s expectations. It is simpler and less expensive to make changes to this paper-and-pencil version than to make them after the system has been built. Using good planning makes it less likely that changes will have to be made once the program is finished.

Unfortunately, until several years ago no good method of representation existed to describe satisfactorily systems as complex as those that are being developed today. The only good representation of what the product will look like was the finished product itself. Developers could not show clients what they were planning. And clients could not see whether what the software was what they wanted until it was finally built. Then it was too expensive to change.

Again, consider the analogy of building construction. An architect can draw a floor plan. The client can usually gain some understanding of what the architect has planned and give feed back as to whether it is appropriate. Floor plans are reasonably easy for the layperson to understand because most people are familiar with the drawings representing geometrical objects. The architect and the client share common concepts about space and geometry. But the software engineer must represent for the client a system involving logic and information processing. Since they do not already have a language of common concepts, the software engineer must teach a new language to the client before they can communicate.

Moreover, it is important that this language be simple so it can be learned quickly.

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Kitchen Design Ideas

Kitchens have so many design options that they are literally never ending. Kitchen design ideas include features such as cabinetry, tiles, counter tops, appliances, hardware and fixtures. Each feature on its own has a multitude of design options and the possible combinations are endless. Two identical kitchens with only one different feature can look like very different kitchens when finished. Because of the vast number of design options, thoroughly research what products are available on the market and get a fairly good idea what it is you are looking for.

The main feature in any kitchen is the cabinetry. It is more often than not the first thing that people notice in a kitchen. The layout of the cabinetry is unique to each kitchen. Measure the size of your kitchen and determine the types of cabinets and where you would like them placed. If you have a solid wall with no windows, doors or appliances opt for floor to ceiling cabinets full of drawers for storage. Include a broom or cleaning closet in these cupboards. Glass fronts in corner cabinets are a popular design feature. Cabinets have a wide variety of door styles. There are recessed, flat paneled and raised cabinet doors. Each of these options comes with several design choices. Once you have picked the design of your cabinets you need to decide on the stain that suits your kitchen space. Opt for lighter colored stains for smaller kitchens to keep them feeling open and spacious.

Counter tops are also an important feature in a kitchen. They too are highly visible. Counter tops should be chosen for durability as well as looks. Granite counter tops are the most popular choice today. You may also choose from engineered stone, ceramic tile, laminates, wood and stainless steel. The material and color of your counter tops should compliment your cabinetry, backslash and tiles. If your kitchen is a large room but does not have a lot of counter space you might want to consider adding an island for additional space. Not only does an island adds counter space but also storage space.

Flooring is an integral kitchen feature. Most kitchens are done with ceramic tile flooring but wood floors and laminates are growing in popularity. Many kitchens have tiled backslashes. Be sure that the tiles used in your backslash compliment the flooring. Besides the type of flooring you use, you must also pick a color of tile, wood or laminate as well as texture. Quite often a kitchen with light colored cabinetry will look best with a slightly darker floor and vice-versa. Contrast between the cabinetry and the flooring, no matter how small, creates the illusion of depth.

The kitchen design ideas listed above are just the tip of the iceberg. We have not even touched on cabinet hardware, lighting fixtures, sinks and taps, paint colors or appliances. Matching appliances are ideal in any kitchen. Stainless steel appliances are a favorite because they match just about any kitchen design. Families with small children may wish to consider black appliances since stainless steel shows fingerprints. Put as much thought into the small features as you do the larger ones. Something as simple as buying the wrong cabinet hardware can ruin the look of the completed project.

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Determining the Best Type of Fastener to Use For Outdoor Furniture Construction

If you want to learn about selecting hardware for your next outdoor furniture project, then you'll want to read this article. Specifically, I'll be telling you about what type of hardware will perform best, why the type of metal used for fasteners and the finish used are important considerations, and how properly protecting or limiting exposure of your furniture to wet and winter conditions can increase Life span. After you're done with this article you will understand that the best choice of hardware for your outdoor furniture project is dependent on furniture style, material used for construction, selected location for the furniture and budget.

Selecting proper hardware for your furniture will help ensure a long life span, as well as improve the overall appearance of your furniture. Part of the problem is knowing what hardware to select when there are so many options available at the hardware store. The typical Lowes or Home Depot carries a huge selection of stainless steel, hot dipped galvanized, bright galvanized, plain steel, coated steel and brass bolts, nuts, washers and screws. Each type of fastener is suitable for certain applications, but not all are ideal for outdoor furniture applications.

In fact, choosing the wrong fasteners can greatly shorten the lifespan of your furniture, contribute to rot of wood furniture, cause unsightly staining, and even make your furniture unsafe to use.

One thing that needs to be noted right up front is, do not ever use unprotected steel fasteners for outdoor furniture, they will rust very quickly, and the steel will react with the tannic acid in the wood causing streaks and staining. The tannic acid actually speeds up the corrosion of the fasteners. Have you ever seen a wooden fence with black streaks running down the boards from the nails? This fence was installed with the wrong type of fasteners. The same thing will happen to your furniture. Even worse, as the fasteners rust, they will speed up the decay process of the wood around the rusted fasteners, ruining your furniture and making it potentially unsafe to use.

Hot Dipped Galvanized

Screws and bolts treated by hot dipped galvanizing are specifically designed for use outdoors. Electroplated galvanized or bright galvanized fasteners will very well not hold up as well as the hot dipped galvanized hardware. Zinc is used as a coating in both methods, and acts as a barrier against the elements and the tannic acids in the wood.

I strongly recommend only using screws or bolts in the construction of outdoor furniture, however. The galvanized finish on nails, either electroplated or hot dipped, can easily become damaged while hammering them in, exposing the nail head to the elements and allowing them to begin rusting quickly.

Adequate care must be taken when installing galvanized screws. Drill pilot holes in hardwoods, and be sure to use a bit that is not worn and intolerable to skipping in the screw head. For whatever reason, the galvanized screws seem to not be as well tempered as other steel fasteners, and are more likely to either snap off or have the heads strip out while installing them. Due to the permission required for the hot dipped coating, galvanized bolts do not have as tight of tolerance on the threads, and are more likely to strip if over tightened.

Hot dipped galvanized fasteners are a fine choice for many outdoor furniture applications, including Adirondack Chairs, but are not the best choice for use in woods, such as teak.

Stainless steel

Stainless steel is the best choice for use in woods with higher levels of tannic acid, such as teak. Stainless steel is an alloy or blend of steel, nickel and chrome. The ratio of the other metals with the steel determine the weather and corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Because the steel is mixed with other softer metals, the stainless steel is not as strong, so predrilling of screw holes is highly recommended in all applications, and essential in hardwoods such as teak and mahogany. The added corrosion resistance more than outweighs any shortcomings that the metal may have, especially in outdoor furniture applications.

While stainless steel fasteners are the most rust resistant, they are also the most expensive of the options we are discussing. However, using stainless steel fasteners will add years of life to your furniture. In the respect, they are an investment that will pay out for years to come.

Brass

I have seen brass used in some commercially produced outdoor furniture, but do not recommend it. While brass does not form red rust, and is well suited for many wet applications such as toilets and sinks, it does tarnish and corrode. It is also very susceptible to the tannic acids in wood, which will cause it to fail more quickly. Brass screws in particular Do not have sufficient strength for outdoor furniture applications.

Outdoor or deck screws

In the past several years a number of manufacturers have introduced outdoor fastening products specifically marketed for deck building. These will typically be green, gray, tan or brown. These screws are either ceramic or plastic coated to delay the metal reacting with the wood acids. The specific coating methods are proprietary to each manufacturer, and can be a combination of electroplated galvanizing and plastic, or a baked on ceramic.

I have used these fasteners in furniture applications and they perform just fine. Unfortunately, I have not come across bolts with this type of finish. The brand of screw I used was Deck Mate, and they were available in tan and brown, so that the color can be selected to better match the wood being used. These screws are ceramic covered, and the manufacturer provided a coated bit for installation, which was designed to not damage the ceramic coating at the screw head. If you choose this type of fastener, be sure to compare the cost with stainless steel, as the price will vary. If the stainless steel is reasonably comparable in cost, it would be the recommended fastener.

Always be sure to read the manufacturers specifications on the box to be sure that the screws are suitable for your application.

Other Considerations

If you are building furniture that will be located on a covered porch or patio where it will be protected from the elements, the concern will be the interaction between the wood and the fasteners, much more so than the weather. Furniture that will be exposed to the elements all year, such as a garden bench, or an adirondack chair in the corner of your garden, will have to be constructed with much more care and concern to ensure that they hold up more than just one or Two winters.

Additional considerations must be made beyond just the choice of what type of fastener to use, though this is very important. For example, fasteners should not be located where water where collect and sit on the fasteners for an extended period of time. The screws that attach the seat slats to an Adirondack chair are a prime example- typically these screws will be countersunk below the surface of the wood. This will allow water to collect in the screw holes, shortening the life span of all but stainless steel fasteners, and prolonging the exposure of the wood to water, which will increase the rate of decay. In applications where the furniture will be exposed to the elements year round the screw heads should be driven flush with the surface of the surrounding wood.

Construction and design of the furniture are also important considerations. Are the horizontal surfaces of the furniture constructed in such a way that will allow them to shed water, rather than collect it? Think of a picnic table with a slatted or board top. The gaps between the boards allow water a way to run off the top and not pool up.

Conclusion

Stainless steel is usually the best choice for outdoor furniture applications, although the cost may be prohibitive for some. There are other less expensive fastener options available that will perform acceptably. Do not use unprotected steel fasteners for outdoor furniture applications under any circumstances. Know where and how you intend to use your furniture and design it for the conditions it will be subjected to.

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